Several commonly used shafts and their various uses Factory Suppliers Manufacturers Quotes

Several commonly used shafts and their various uses

The shaft is a cylindrical object that is worn in the middle of the bearing or in the middle of the wheel or in the middle of the gear, but a few are square. A shaft is a mechanical part that supports a rotating part and rotates therewith to transmit motion, torque or bending moments. Generally, it is a metal rod shape, and each segment can have a different diameter, and the parts for the rotary motion in the machine are mounted on the shaft.

1, the classification of the axis:

There are many types of shafts, which can be divided into a straight shaft, a crankshaft and a flexible shaft according to the shape of the axis. Crankshafts are commonly used in reciprocating machines (such as internal combustion engines, air compressors, etc.). Flexible shafts can flexibly move rotational motion to the desired position and are commonly used in medical devices.


Straight axes can be divided into three categories: shaft, mandrel and drive shaft according to their bearing conditions.

Rotary shaft: It is the most common shaft in machinery, such as the shaft in various reducers, etc.


Mandrel: used to support rotating parts to only bear bending moments without transmitting torque, some mandrel rotation, such as the axle of a railway vehicle, some mandrels do not rotate, such as the shaft supporting the pulley;


Drive shaft: mainly used to transmit torque without bending moment, such as long optical axis in crane moving mechanism, drive shaft of automobile, etc. The material of the shaft is mainly carbon steel or alloy steel, and ductile iron or alloy cast iron can also be used. The working capacity of the shaft generally depends on the strength and stiffness, and the high speed depends on the vibration stability;


2, the material of the shaft

Common materials for the shaft are carbon steel and alloy steel. Carbon steel is cheaper than alloy steel, has less sensitivity to stress concentration, and has better mechanical properties, so it is widely used.

Steel shaft blanks are generally rolled round or forged. The internal structure of the forging is relatively uniform and the strength is good, so the important shaft should be a forged blank.


3, the structural design of the shaft

The structural design of the shaft is an important step in the design of the shaft to determine the proper shape of the shaft and the overall structural dimensions. It consists of the type, size and position of the part mounted on the shaft, the way the part is fixed, the nature, direction, size and distribution of the load, the type and size of the bearing, the blank of the shaft, the manufacturing and assembly process, the installation and transport, the shaft The deformation and other factors are related. The designer can design according to the specific requirements of the shaft. If necessary, several schemes can be compared to select the best design. The following are the general shaft structure design principles:

    (1) Saving materials, reducing weight, and adopting the cross-sectional shape of equal strength shape or large section coefficient;

    (2) It is easy to accurately position, stabilize, assemble, disassemble and adjust the parts on the shaft;

    (3) Adopt various structural measures to reduce stress concentration and increase strength;

    (4) Facilitate processing and manufacturing and ensure accuracy;


4. Axial positioning and fixing of the parts on the shaft

The axial positioning and fixing methods of the parts on the shaft are commonly used for the shoulder, the collar, the locking ring, the sleeve, the round nut and the retaining washer, the circlip, the shaft end ring and the conical surface.


5, shaft maintenance

5.1 Correction of shaft bending deformation

When the deformation of the shaft is too large, it can be corrected by cold pressure correction or partial flame heating. The bearing position during calibration should be correct, especially care should be taken not to cause stress concentration at the corner of the stepped shaft due to correction.

5.2 Repair of journal wear

Usually, the geometrical error of the shaft is first removed by grinding, and then metallized or brushed. In severe cases, it can be repaired by welding or inserting. When the sleeve is set, the sleeve and the shaft are interference fit.

5.3 Repair of splines, keyways and threads

The worn flank can be repaired by gas welding or surfacing, and then the spline can be milled based on the worn spline. After the keyway is damaged, the keyway can be appropriately enlarged or the old keyway can be welded and replaced with a new key. When the thread on the shaft is damaged, it should be surfacing and re-threaded.

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