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Precautions for machining shaft parts

Shaft parts are a common type of part, which is a rotating body with a length that is generally larger than the diameter. It is widely used in various mechanical equipment to support transmission components, transmit torque and withstand loads. The processing of shaft parts should follow certain rules. You can find out the specific processing steps and some problems that need attention in this paper.


        First, the basic processing route of shaft parts
        
The main machining surface of the shaft parts is the outer surface and the common special surface, so the most suitable processing method should be selected for various accuracy grades and surface roughness requirements. The basic processing route can be summarized into four.

        
The first is from the rough car to the semi-finished car, to the finishing car processing route, which is also the most important process route for the general external material shaft parts needle outer ring processing, followed by the rough car to the semi-finished car, Then to rough grinding, and finally using the fine grinding processing route, for ferrous materials and parts with high precision, surface roughness requirements and hardened parts, this processing route is the best choice because grinding is The most ideal follow-up process; the third route is from roughing to semi-finishing, to finishing, diamond, this processing route is specially used to process non-ferrous materials, because non-ferrous metals are less hard and easy to block The gap between sand grains is usually not easy to obtain the required surface roughness by grinding. The finishing and diamond car processes must be used. The last processing route is from roughing to semi-finishing, to coarse grinding and fine grinding. Finally, the finishing process is carried out. This kind of route is a processing route that is often used for hardening of ferrous materials and requiring high precision and low surface roughness.

        
Second, the pre-processing of shaft parts
        
Before the turning of the outer part of the shaft part, some preparatory process is required. This is the pre-processing of the shaft part. The most important preparation process is straightening. Because the workpiece blank is often bent during deformation during manufacturing, transportation, and storage. In order to ensure reliable clamping and uniform distribution of machining allowance, in a cold state, straightening is performed by various presses or straightening machines.

       
Third, the positioning standard of the machining of shaft parts
        
The first is the center hole of the workpiece as the positioning reference for the machining. In the machining of shaft parts, the coaxiality of each outer surface, the taper hole and the thread surface, and the perpendicularity of the end surface to the rotation axis are important manifestations of positional accuracy. These surfaces are generally designed with the centerline of the shaft as the reference and are positioned with the center hole to conform to the principle of reference coincidence. The center hole is not only the positioning reference for turning machining, but also the positioning reference and inspection standard for other machining processes, which conforms to the principle of standardization. When positioning with two center holes, it is possible to process a plurality of outer circles and end faces in a single clamping.

        
The second is the outer circle and the center hole as the positioning reference for the machining. This method effectively overcomes the shortcomings of poor positioning rigidity of the center hole, especially when machining a heavy workpiece, the center hole positioning may cause the clamping to be unstable, and the cutting amount may not be too large. You don't have to worry about this problem by using the outer circle and the center hole as the positioning reference. In roughing, the method of using the outer surface of the shaft and a center hole as the positioning reference can withstand large cutting moments during machining, which is the most common positioning method for shaft parts.

        
The third is to use two outer circular surfaces as the positioning reference for processing. When machining the inner bore of the hollow shaft, the center hole cannot be used as the positioning reference, so the two outer circular surfaces of the shaft should be used as the positioning reference. When machining the machine tool spindle, the two support journals are often used as the positioning reference, which can effectively ensure the concentricity of the taper hole relative to the support journal, and eliminate the error caused by the misalignment of the reference.

        
Finally, a cone plug with a central hole is used as a positioning reference for machining. This method is most commonly used in the machining of the outer surface of hollow shafts.

        
Fourth, the clamping of the shaft parts
        
The processing of cone plug and taper sleeve mandrel must have high machining precision. The center hole is not only the positioning reference made by itself, but also the benchmark for the outer circle finishing of hollow shaft. It must ensure the taper on the cone or cone sleeve. It has a high degree of concentricity with the center hole. Therefore, when selecting the clamping method, it should be noted that the number of installations of the cone plug should be minimized, thereby reducing the repeated installation error of the parts. In actual production, after the cone plug is installed, it is generally not removed or replaced in the middle of processing until the processing is completed.

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