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Drill processing characteristics and conditions

As the most common tool in hole machining, the drill bit is widely used in machinery manufacturing, especially for the processing of parts such as cooling devices, tube sheets for power generation equipment and steam generators. The application surface is particularly extensive and important. Today, Xiaobian is here to find this drill bit, all you need is here!


First, the characteristics of drilling


    The drill usually has two main cutting edges, and the bit is cut while rotating while machining. The front angle of the drill bit is larger and larger from the central axis to the outer edge. The closer to the outer circle, the higher the cutting speed of the drill bit, the decreasing the cutting speed toward the center, and the cutting speed of the center of rotation of the drill bit is zero. The chisel edge of the drill bit is located near the center axis of the rotation, the secondary rake angle of the chisel edge is large, there is no chip space, and the cutting speed is low, so that a large axial resistance is generated. If the chisel edge is ground to the A or C type in DIN 1414, the cutting edge near the center axis is the positive rake angle, which reduces the cutting resistance and significantly improves the cutting performance.


According to the shape, material, structure, function, etc. of the workpiece, the drill can be divided into many types, such as high-speed steel drill bit (twist drill, group drill, flat drill), solid carbide drill, indexable shallow hole drill, deep hole Drills, nesting drills and interchangeable drill bits.


Second, the processing conditions of drilling


    In the general drill product catalogue, there is a “Basic Cutting Usage Reference Table” arranged according to the processing materials. The user can select the cutting conditions for drilling according to the cutting amount provided. Whether the selection of cutting conditions is appropriate should be judged by trial cutting and based on factors such as machining accuracy, machining efficiency, and bit life.


    1, bit life and processing efficiency


    Under the premise of meeting the technical requirements of the workpiece to be processed, whether the use of the drill bit is appropriate, it should be comprehensively measured according to the service life of the drill bit and the processing efficiency. The evaluation index of the life of the drill bit can be selected from the cutting path; the evaluation index of the processing efficiency can be selected from the feed rate. For high-speed steel drill bits, the service life of the drill bit is greatly affected by the swing speed and is less affected by the feed per revolution. Therefore, the machining efficiency can be increased by increasing the feed per revolution, while ensuring a longer drill life. However, it should be noted that if the feed per revolution is too large, the chips will be thickened, which will make the chip breaking difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the range of feed per revolution that can be successfully broken by trial cutting. For cemented carbide drills, the cutting edge has a large chamfer in the negative rake direction. The optional range of feed per revolution is smaller than that of the high-speed steel drill. If the feed per revolution exceeds this range during processing, the drill bit will be reduced. life. Since the heat resistance of the hard alloy drill bit is higher than that of the high speed steel drill bit, the rotational speed has little effect on the life of the drill bit. Therefore, the method of increasing the rotational speed can be used to improve the processing efficiency of the cemented carbide drill bit while ensuring the life of the drill bit.


 2. Reasonable use of cutting fluid


    The cutting of the drill bit is performed in a hole with a narrow space, so the type of the cutting fluid and the manner of feeding have a great influence on the life of the drill and the machining accuracy of the hole. Cutting fluids can be divided into two categories: water-soluble and water-insoluble. The water-insoluble cutting fluid has good lubricity, wettability and adhesion resistance, and also has an anti-rust effect. Water-soluble cutting fluids have better cooling properties, no fumes and no flammability. In recent years, the use of water-soluble cutting fluid has been large in consideration of environmental protection. However, if the dilution ratio of the water-soluble cutting fluid is improper or the cutting fluid deteriorates, the tool life will be greatly shortened, so care must be taken during use. Regardless of whether it is a water-soluble or water-insoluble cutting fluid, the cutting fluid must be sufficiently brought to the cutting point during use, and the flow rate, pressure, number of nozzles, cooling method (internal cooling or external cooling) of the cutting fluid must be strictly controlled.

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